Leaf indentations

Leaf margins may be entire or they may have indentations.

Depending on the type of indentation, leaf margins are toothed or lobed.

Entire - margin without indentation.

Toothed - indented only slightly along the margin. Indentations less than one quarter of the distance to the base or the midrib.

Lobed - with deep indentations extending one-quater or more of the distance to the base of the midrib.

Toothed leaf margins can be described more specifically.

Undulate - more or less wavy.

Sinuate - winding strongly inward and outward.

Crisped - same as sinuate, but winding in the vertical plane.

Revolute - rolled under.

Incised - (cut or jagged) with deep sharp irregular indentations.

Crenate - broad, rounded teeth and narrow open spaces between.

Crenulate - crenate, but with very small teeth.

Serrate - cut into sharp, forward-projecting teeth.

Serrulate - serrate with very small teeth.

Retrorsely toothed - serrate with teeth projecting toward leaf base.

Dentate - angular teeth projecting approximately at right angles.

Denticulate - dentate with very small teeth.

Lobed leaves are palmately lobed when the indentations are toward the leaf base, or pinnately lobed with indentations towards the midrib. The degrees of lobing for both palmately and pinnately lobed leaves are described more specifically as:

Lobed - indentations extending one-quarter to nearly one half the distance to the base of the midrib.

Cleft - indentations halfway or a little more than halfway.

Parted - indentations decidedly more than halfway to nearly all the way.

Divided - indentations running practically all the way (but not completely, otherwise it would be a compound leaf).